Overall, Movistar rider Van Vleuten was third, 3:48 ahead of her Vollering (Team SD Worx) and 6:35 ahead of Polish rider Katarzyna Niewiadoma (Canyon-SRAM).
She went into the final stage with a 3:14 lead over Vollering.
The victory adds to a long track record of three Giro her d’Italia her feminine titles, an Olympic gold medal in her time trials and her two world titles in the same discipline.
In her penultimate stage on Saturday, Van Vleuten moved up from her eighth place overall, snatching the yellow jersey from Marianne Vos and showing a great climb on Vosges.
The 39-year-old van Vleuten won the stage by 30 seconds ahead of Dutchman Demi Vorelling, who also finished second overall. Italy’s Silvia Persico finished in her third place, one minute and 43 seconds behind the winner.
Van Vleuten had plenty of energy to celebrate as she crossed the finish line after her 123km mountain stage in the Vosges mountains of eastern France. There were two Category 1 climbs, the second being the stage finish of La Super Planche des Belles Filles, which ended with a terrifying gradient of 23%.
Six years ago, she fractured her spine and her career was in jeopardy after she was rushed to intensive care after falling during the women’s Olympic road race at the Brazilian Games. Voss was one of the favourites, but three-time Giro d’Italia champion Voss finished 26th overall.